Django template syntax

  • template is a text file. It can generate any text-based format (HTML, XML, CSV, etc.).
  • template contains variables , which get replaced with values when the template is evaluated
  • template tags control the logic of the template.

template.html

{% extends "base_generic.html" %}

{% block title %}{{ section.title }}{% endblock %}

{% block content %}
<h1>{{ section.title }}</h1>

{% for story in story_list %}
<h2>
  <a href="{{ story.get_absolute_url }}">
    {{ story.headline|upper }}
  </a>
</h2>
<p>{{ story.tease|truncatewords:"100" }}</p>
{% endfor %}
{% endblock %}

template variables

  • Variables look like this: {{ variable }}.
  • When the template engine encounters a variable, it evaluates that variable and replaces it with the result.
  • Use a dot (.) to access attributes of a variable.

template.html

{{ section.title }}
{{ foo }}

template filters

  • we can modify variables for display by using filters .
  • filters look like this: {{ name|lower }} where name is a variable and lower is a filter.
  • lower converts the value of name to lowercase
Filter Description Example Usage
date Formats a date according to a given format string. {{ my_date|date:"F j, Y" }}
time Formats a time according to a given format string. {{ my_time|time:"H" }}
default Provides a default value if the variable is None or empty. {{ my_var|default:"N/A" }}
default_if_none Provides a default value only if the variable is None. {{ my_var|default_if_none:"N/A" }}
length Returns the length of the value. {{ my_list|length }}
lower Converts a string to lowercase. {{ my_string|lower }}
upper Converts a string to uppercase. {{ my_string|upper }}
title Converts a string to title case. {{ my_string|title }}
truncatewords Truncates a string to the specified number of words. {{ my_string|truncatewords:3 }}
truncatechars Truncates a string to the specified number of characters. {{ my_string|truncatechars:10 }}
default Returns a default value if the variable is None. {{ name|default:"Guest" }}
length Returns the length of the value. {{ items|length }}
join Joins a list with a string. {{ list|join:", " }}
yesno Converts boolean values to strings. {{ my_bool|yesno:"yes,no,maybe" }}
safe Marks a string as safe for HTML output. {{ my_html|safe }}
escape Escapes a string’s HTML. {{ my_string|escape }}
linebreaks Converts newlines into <p> and <br> tags. {{ my_text|linebreaks }}
urlize Converts URLs in plain text into clickable links. {{ my_text|urlize }}
pluralize Adds an 's' to a word if the value is not 1. {{ count|pluralize }}
slice Returns a slice of the value. {{ my_list|slice:":2" }}
add Adds a number to the value. {{ num|add:5 }}
divisibleby Returns True if the value is divisible by the argument. {{ num|divisibleby:3 }}
filesizeformat Formats a number of bytes as a human-readable file size. {{ size|filesizeformat }}
first Returns the first item in a list. {{ my_list|first }}
last Returns the last item in a list. {{ my_list|last }}
random Returns a random item from a list. {{ my_list|random }}
striptags Strips HTML tags from a string. {{ my_html|striptags }}

template tags

  • Tags look like this: {% tag %}.
  • Some tags require beginning and ending tags (i.e.{% tag %} ... tag contents ... {% endtag %}).
Tag Description Example Usage
{% for %} Loop over a sequence.
<ul>
    {% for item in items %}
        <li>{{ item }}</li>
    {% endfor %}
</ul>
                
{% if %} Conditional statement.
{% if user.is_authenticated %}
    <p>Welcome, {{ user.username }}!</p>
{% else %}
    <p>Please log in.</p>
{% endif %}
                
{% elif %} Conditional elif clause.
{% if value < 10 %}
    <p>Less than 10</p>
{% elif value < 20 %}
    <p>Less than 20</p>
{% else %}
    <p>20 or more</p>
{% endif %}
                
{% else %} Conditional else clause.
{% if user.is_authenticated %}
    <p>Welcome, {{ user.username }}!</p>
{% else %}
    <p>Please log in.</p>
{% endif %}
                
{% block %} Define a block that can be overridden in child templates.
{% block content %}
    <p>Content goes here.</p>
{% endblock %}
                
{% extends %} Inherit from another template.
{% extends "base.html" %}
                
{% include %} Include another template within the current one.
{% include "navbar.html" %}
                
{% load %} Load a custom template tag library.
{% load custom_tags %}
                
{% comment %} Comment out a block of text.
{% comment %}
    This is a comment and will not be rendered.
{% endcomment %}
                
{% csrf_token %} Generate a CSRF token.
<form method="post">
    {% csrf_token %}
    <!-- form fields -->
</form>
                
{% static %} Generate a URL for static files.
<img src="{% static 'images/logo.png' %}" alt="Logo">
                
{% url %} Generate a URL for a view.
<a href="{% url 'app_name:view_name' %}">Link</a>
                
{% now %} Display the current date and time.
<p>Today's date is {% now "Y-m-d" %}</p>
                
{% with %} Create a new context variable.
{% with total=business.employees.count %}
    <p>Total employees: {{ total }}</p>
{% endwith %}
                
{% autoescape %} Control auto-escaping behavior.
{% autoescape off %}
    {{ data|safe }}
{% endautoescape %}
                
{% spaceless %} Remove whitespace between HTML tags.
{% spaceless %}
    <div>
        <span>Content</span>
    </div>
{% endspaceless %}
                
{% cycle %} Cycle among values for each iteration of a loop.
<ul>
    {% for o in some_list %}
        <li class="{% cycle 'odd' 'even' %}">{{ o }}</li>
    {% endfor %}
</ul>
                
{% firstof %} Output the first variable that is not empty.
{% firstof var1 var2 var3 %}
                
{% regroup %} Group a list of objects by an attribute.
{% regroup items by category as grouped_items %}
<ul>
    {% for group in grouped_items %}
        <li>{{ group.grouper }}
            <ul>
                {% for item in group.list %}
                    <li>{{ item.name }}</li>
                {% endfor %}
            </ul>
        </li>
    {% endfor %}
</ul>
                
{% verbatim %} Disable template tag parsing for a block of text.
{% verbatim %}
    {{ raw_variable }}
{% endverbatim %}
                

template inheritance

  • The most powerful and complex – part of Django’s template engine is template inheritance.
  • Template inheritance allows you to build a base “skeleton” template that contains all the common elements of your site and defines blocks that child templates can override.

base.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css">
    <title>{% block title %}My amazing site{% endblock %}</title>
</head>

<body>
    <div id="sidebar">
        {% block sidebar %}
        <ul>
            <li><a href="/">Home</a></li>
            <li><a href="/blog/">Blog</a></li>
        </ul>
        {% endblock %}
    </div>

    <div id="content">
        {% block content %}{% endblock %}
    </div>
</body>
</html>

blog.html

{% extends "base.html" %}

{% block title %}My amazing blog{% endblock %}

{% block content %}
{% for entry in blog_entries %}
    <h2>{{ entry.title }}</h2>
    <p>{{ entry.body }}</p>
{% endfor %}
{% endblock %}

blog_page.html

{% extends "base.html" %}

{% block title %}Django is awesome {% endblock %}

{% block content %}
<div>
    Django’s template language is designed to strike a balance between power and ease. It’s designed to feel comfortable to those used to working with HTML. If you have any exposure to other text-based template languages, such as Smarty or Jinja2, you should feel right at home with Django’s templates.
</div>
{% endblock %}